Interested in modern history? Want to find out more about African-American civil rights? Or the origins of the Israel Palestine conflict? You’ve come to the right place: we offer a fascinating history degree.
Our BA (Hons) History degree focuses on world history from the late 18th Century to the early 21st Century, mainly in Britain, Europe, the USA and Asia. You’ll be able to explore key developments in European society from 1789 to 1919, contemporary French history and the evolution of the Zionist/Palestinian conflict.
With lots of modules to choose from in years two and three, you’ll delve into topics like the history of communism in Eastern Europe, or contemporary European politics, on this thought provoking history degree.
You’ll develop a deep subject knowledge and importantly, be able to connect it with the world we live in today. You’ll get the opportunity to take part in a community project, undertake field trips, and write and produce a video documentary.
Your tutors’ research has been judged to be ‘internationally important’ in a research excellence framework and this feeds straight into their teaching. You’ll learn to conduct research, craft a message and analyse complex information, making you an independent, confident and employable graduate.
International students can apply
Learn a language option available
Sandwich year option available
Studying abroad option available
Work placement opportunity
The lecturers are fantastic, genuinely lovely. They’re really open and helpful and always happy to talk to you or answer questions after lectures.
In Year 1 you’ll learn the foundations of history. You’ll look at key developments that transformed Europe between 1789 and 1919. You’ll study how history is applied in non-academic contexts, such as politics, popular culture and journalism. You’ll also get the chance to become a Digital Detective, where you develop advanced digital research and archive skills.
Europe Re-made introduces you to the key developments that transformed European society between 1789 and 1919. At the start of this period, on the eve of the French Revolution, Europe was predominantly an agrarian society with very limited industrial and urban development. In most European states, landed elites were still dominant as a conservative influence resistant to political and social change. By 1919, Europe had been transformed into a society in which state power lay in the hands of urban-based political parties with industry and trade as the dominant forms of economic activity. The module is primarily concerned with the broad political, economic and social influences that caused this transformation which was of immense significance not only for Europe but also for the course of world history during the twentieth century.
Module code: HIS1012
Imperialism, Liberation, Globalisation
Imperialism, Liberation, Globalisation examines some of the main events, political and social movements, economic developments and ideologies which dominated the twentieth century around the world. You will study the rise and fall of the great ideologies of Communism, Nazism and Fascism, the causes and outcome of the Second World War and the development of the Cold War between the Super Powers after 1945. The module will also look at international relations and the global economic system after the fall of the Soviet Empire in 1989-1991.
Module code: HIS1013
The Dawn of Modernity
The Dawn of Modernity focuses on the immense social, political and religious changes which took place in Early Modern England. Reformation of the church, the outbreak of civil war, the emergence of radical sectarian groups and an increasingly politicised people created a rapidly changing society. The module will explore the diverse responses to those changes and the fear that people lived in a ‘world turned upside down’. Although the period can be characterised as one of tension and crisis, you will also consider continuities from the medieval period, and the existence of political and social consensus, climaxing in the restoration of monarchy after the short-lived republic. The module will consider whether we can truly agree with the perception of the early modern period as one of approaching modernity through a study of key developments in church, state and culture during the period 1500-1660.
Module code: HIS1011
The Medieval Outlook
The Medieval Outlook focuses on the period between the end of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance. You will learn about the emergence of Europe as a distinct entity, comprised of a variety of peoples with diverse cultures and languages. ‘Christendom’ is often used to describe medieval Europe and we will look at how the Church did indeed give a type of cohesion to the continent. The Church assumed leadership of societies after the fall of Rome and held a deep and powerful influence on the medieval outlook. We will consider how this influence manifested itself through a study of the state, power and authority as well as popular beliefs and the medieval world-view. We will also consider the tensions which arose between the bishop of Rome and the development of more secular authority and culture. The module will predominantly focus on England but will place the country’s medieval past into a broader European context.
History and Society: Theory, Practice and Impact introduces you to the conventions of academic history and outlines a range of concepts and ideologies that are regularly employed within historical discourse. The module also examines the way that history and ideas about the past are employed in a wide variety of non-academic contexts, such as politics, popular culture and journalism.
Module code: HIS1017
Time Detectives introduces you to the tools and methods required to become an independent historical researcher. These skills include selecting and interpreting primary evidence, independently locating books and articles, making effective use of digital tools and archives, applying these research skills to a specific historical problem, and producing a clear, convincing and original argument.
Module code: HIS1016
Language 1 is ideal if you want to learn a new language, or further develop your current language skills, as an integrated part of this degree. You can study French, German, Arabic, Italian, Mandarin, Japanese or Spanish (subject to minimum numbers for your preferred language). Delivered at the Edge Hill Language Centre, the module will be taught in an interactive, communicative manner, using authentic materials in the target language. Emphasis will be placed on all four areas of reading, writing, speaking and listening. You will play an active role in the weekly two-hour classes, engaging in role-plays, short conversations, videos, authentic texts and listening materials. You will also be encouraged to reflect on your own learning needs. On enrolment to the module, you will complete a language induction form and be placed into a language level group appropriate for your prior knowledge of your chosen language. Please note, while we will endeavour to accommodate varying language levels per module, this is not always possible. While you can join the module with some prior experience of your target language, you will not be able to study a language you are already fluent or proficient in.
Module code: TLC1010
In your second year, you have a wide range of modules to choose from. You might study an introduction to contemporary French history, the world of the crusades, US foreign policy or postcolonial world order. Perhaps you’re interested to look at communism in Eastern and central Europe after 1945, or migration and mobility in contemporary European history.
Making History is a placement-based module in which you will apply your historical skills and knowledge to a public-facing project of your choosing. You will have the option of either identifying an external partner yourself (subject to approval from the programme team), selecting from a list of approved external partners, or working on a public history project within the department. The precise nature of each project will be determined through discussions between yourself, your tutors and external partners but each project should involve making meaningful use of the historical skills and knowledge you have developed during your degree.
Communism in Eastern and Central Europe After 1945
Communism in Eastern and Central Europe After 1945 examines the rise, stagnation, collapse and ongoing legacies of the communist experiment that ruled half of Europe during the decades after the Second World War. The module examines both the Soviet Union itself during the post-Stalinist era and the countries of east-central Europe, allowing you to choose to study the history of Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania or Yugoslavia. This history is of growing relevance to you, given that twenty years after its collapse the communist period can now be seen in historical perspective, and given the close relationships which many of the successors to these states have developed with the UK since the enlargement of the European Union in 2004 and 2007.
Module code: HIS2020
Digital Detectives provides extensive practical experience with digital archives and will help you to develop a range of advanced digital research skills. Digital tools and archives are becoming increasingly central to the process of historical research. The module will be taught entirely in computer rooms and will take the form of weekly two-hour workshops. The historical content of the module will be structured around the history of crime and society in 18th and 19th century Britain.
Module code: HIS2032
Global Revolution: The Postcolonial World Order, 1896-1957
Global Revolution: The Postcolonial World Order, 1896-1957 reflects on how, for thousands of years, perhaps starting with the Akkadian empire of ancient Mesopotamia in the 3rd millennium BCE, empire and colonialism were the norms of political order around the globe. In the 20th century, however, that ceased to be the case with not only the nation-state becoming the most common political structure, but the very idea of colonialism was discredited and disavowed by global political institutions. The module examines why this change happened, with a particular focus on the British empire. Starting in 1896, you will begin with examining the Second International’s decision to commit itself to the right to national self-determination. The module progresses through the first half of the twentieth century and slightly beyond, culminating in an exploration of the post-colonial independence of Malaya and Ghana, two years after the Bandung conference of Asia-Africa nations in 1955, which asserted the principle of national self-determination as the basis of a post-colonial world.
Module code: HIS2038
History on Screen
History on Screen looks at how British, American and German cinemas respectively have represented the historical period up to 1945 on screen, using a combination of contemporary and retrospective film productions. The module will thus explore not only the nature of cinematic representation in general, but also how each nation in turn constructs, or indeed, in the particular case of Germany, reconstructs, national identity through the prism of its past.
Module code: MED2258
Introduction to Contemporary French History: From the 1930s to the Present
Introduction to Contemporary French History: From the 1930s to the Present covers a subject that is both related to and distinct from the familiar Hitler and Stalin centric stories of 20th century Europe. You will examine the history of contemporary France during turbulent periods of political conflict and social change before, during and following the Second World War and France’s subsequent wars of decolonisation in Algeria and elsewhere, as well as its politics and society today. By taking up this comparatively rare opportunity to study the recent history of an important neighbouring country, which is often stereotyped and misunderstood in the UK, you can develop a wider international awareness.
Module code: HIS2033
Islamisms: Religion, Politics and Colonialism from World War I to ISIS
Islamisms: Religion, Politics and Colonialism from World War I to ISIS delivers a history of the development of Islamist (political Islamic) movements from World War I to the present day. The module incorporates literatures and approaches which focus on social history and colonialism to historicise and contextualise the study of political Islam. With a broad geographical spread, from South and West Asia to Europe, the module makes use of case studies to highlight the diversity of thought and practice in political Islam and the historical relationship of Islamic political formations to the rest of the world.
Module code: HIS2037
Migration and Mobility in Contemporary European History
Migration and Mobility in Contemporary European History equips you with a better understanding of the historical context behind one of the most controversial issues facing Europe today. By placing current debates within a historical perspective stretching from the late 19th century right up to the present day, the module will enable you to understand political and social issues ranging from refugees to migrant workers, from cosmopolitanism to immigration controls, and from anti-racist activism to anti-migrant backlashes within a longer term context. By also examining the social and political history of daily journeys such as commuting for work, you will be encouraged to take a broad perspective on mobility.
Module code: HIS2031
Mission and Manifest Destiny: U.S. Foreign Policy and Expansionism 1840-1939
Mission and Manifest Destiny: U.S. Foreign Policy and Expansionism 1840-1939 examines the process of frontier expansion within the United States during the nineteenth century. The module assesses the impact of the move west on native American populations and also the ideological justifications advanced to justify this expansionism, such as mission, manifest destiny and American exceptionalism.
Module code: HIS2023
Rise to Globalism: U.S. Foreign Policy Since 1939
Rise to Globalism: U.S. Foreign Policy Since 1939 examines the rise of the United States as a global superpower from American entry into the Second World War in 1941 through to the present day. It examines the extent to which the ideology underpinning U.S. foreign policy, under successive administrations, has been shaped by American historical experience and values, such as the concepts of American exceptionalism, mission and manifest destiny. You will also study the challenges facing U.S. foreign policy planners from Franklin Roosevelt to Barack Obama and the effectiveness of the various strategies that have been advanced to overcome them. The module examines both the opportunities and limitations on the exercise of American power in the modern world.
Module code: HIS2024
The World of the Crusades
The World of the Crusades examines the history of one of the most important phenomena of the Middle Ages. The module looks at the evolution and varieties of crusading in the Middle East and Europe from 1095 until the end of the Middle Ages and attempts to give you an understanding of this complex and often misunderstood phenomenon. In examining the causes that led to the emergence of crusading, the aim is to familiarise you with the religious and political culture of Europe and the Middle East. By charting the evolution of the movement, you will gain a wider understanding of medieval history. The module will also consider the effects of the crusades on Europe, the Middle East, Christianity, Islam and East-West relations, paying considerable attention to the afterlife of the crusades and their use in modern discourse and politics.
Module code: HIS2036
Urbanisation, Immigration and Economic Crisis: The United States 1880-1941
Urbanisation, Immigration and Economic Crisis: The United States 1880-1941 examines the processes of cultural, social and economic change in the United States from 1880 onwards. The module examines the causes of such change and their impact on American culture and society. It analyses the reasons why U.S. political leaders and social reformers saw such changes as a threat to core American values, even the very survival of the Republic itself. The responses they advanced to deal with this threat are also assessed. The module concludes by examining the causes of the Wall St Crash, 1929, the ensuing Great Depression and the effectiveness of Roosevelt’s New Deal programmes in addressing the problems that resulted from them.
Module code: HIS2022
Language 2 is ideal if you want to learn a new language, or further develop your current language skills, as an integrated part of this degree. You can study French, German, Arabic, Italian, Mandarin, Japanese or Spanish (subject to minimum numbers for your preferred language). Delivered at the Edge Hill Language Centre, the module will be taught in an interactive, communicative manner, using authentic materials in the target language. Emphasis will be placed on all four areas of reading, writing, speaking and listening. You will play an active role in the weekly two-hour classes, engaging in role-plays, short conversations, videos, authentic texts and listening materials. You will also be encouraged to reflect on your own learning needs. On enrolment to the module, you will complete a language induction form and be placed into a language level group appropriate for your prior knowledge of your chosen language. Please note, while we will endeavour to accommodate varying language levels per module, this is not always possible. While you can join the module with some prior experience of your target language, you will not be able to study a language you are already fluent or proficient in.
Module code: TLC2000
Enjoy the freedom to shape your studies in Year 3. You’ll have the opportunity to do an independent research project on a topic of your choice. This could be in the form of a video documentary, or extended research. With a wide choice of modules, you could study the special relationship between Britain and the US, black life and black protest in the US , or the origins and development of British rule in Palestine.
A Century of Crime and Its Contexts: Circa 1840-1940
A Century of Crime and Its Contexts: Circa 1840-1940 examines a range of crimes that occurred in England and Wales over the century between approximately 1840 and 1940. During the chronological period covered, crime became an issue of national importance and perceived as originating partly in major social change and upheaval, such as urbanisation, the First World War and expanded ownership of the motor car. The module places the crimes in their criminal justice, social, cultural and economic contexts. The aim is to use crime and punishment as a lens through which to explore and analyse important changes over time and assess the impact of key events.
Module code: HIS3040
Advanced Parliamentary Studies
Advanced Parliamentary Studies equips you with a thorough and deep understanding of the workings of the UK Parliament and Parliamentary systems. The module explores the history, culture and potential future of Parliament, examines aspects of Parliamentary process in-depth, and considers related issues such as regulation and ethics. You will have the opportunity to interact with practitioners from the workforce in the Houses of Parliament.
Module code: POL3006
Black Life and Black Protest in the United States 1895-1945
Black Life and Black Protest in the United States 1895-1945 examines African American life and history from the 1890s through to the end of the Second World War. It considers the reasons for the widespread introduction of racial segregation in the United States at the end of the nineteenth century and its impact on African American communities. You will examine the efforts of African American leaders to challenge discrimination, from Booker T. Washington through to Asa Philip Randolph, assessing their strengths and weaknesses. The extent to which developments in this period sowed the seeds for the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s are also considered.
Module code: HIS3020
Black Life and Black Protest in the United States Since 1945
Black Life and Black Protest in the United States Since 1945 analyses the reasons for the emergence of the post-war civil rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s. The contribution of leading individuals within the movement, like Martin Luther King, is also examined together with the life and career of Malcolm X and the Black Power movement of the late 1960s and early 1970s. The module concludes by assessing the legacy of the civil rights era for present day family origin relations and the extent to which the election of Barack Obama in 2008 means that the United States can now be described as a post-racial society.
Module code: HIS3021
British Rule in Palestine
British Rule in Palestine explores the origins and development of British rule in Palestine, a seminal chapter in the history of the Arab-Israeli conflict, the Middle East and the British Empire. The module focuses on the political objectives and impact of British rule in Palestine, with particular reference to the evolution of the Zionist-Palestinian conflict.
Module code: HIS3025
History: Interpretations and Context
History: Interpretations and Context explores the close relationship that history has with contextual developments within wider British society, in the period from circa 1840 to the present day. The relationship operates in both directions, as history and perceptions of the past act to inform notions of national identity and national values, through popular cultural media. By exploring the relationship between history and wider British society, the module also introduces you to the uses made of the past in a number of areas of employment, such as advertising, TV production, the press, marketing and commerce. You will reflect on how popularly held notions of national identity become points of connection for journalists, politicians and advertisers with the population at large.
Module code: HIS3037
Independent Research Project
Independent Research Project enables you to undertake an extended piece of research, on a topic of your own selection. Extended research is at the heart of history as an academic subject, and this module provides you with an opportunity to independently deploy the skills and knowledge you have acquired. You will frame your own research question(s) and conduct primary research using libraries, archives, digital depositories and other appropriate sources and resources. You will present your case in either written and/or visual form and be able to demonstrate the clear relationship with existing scholarship on your chosen subject.
Module code: HIS3039
Seeds of Conflict in the Holy Land 1840-1923
Seeds of Conflict in the Holy Land 1840-1923 examines the origins of the Zionist-Palestinian conflict before the commencement of the British Mandate for Palestine in 1923. The module analyses the development of Zionism and Palestinian Arab nationalism under the Ottoman Empire, British support for Zionism in World War I, and the escalation of political conflict and violence by the 1920s. A principal focus will be the impact of the War.
Module code: HIS3024
Special Subject enables you to pursue independent research within a structure that provides a clear framework of support. The module will guide you through from weekly subject-based sessions to more independent, but supported, study of your chosen extended special subject research. You will have a choice of the subject matter you wish to research, exploring a range of topics before researching a more defined subject area. The module entails identifying a research question, locating relevant and sufficient primary material, assessing and selecting an appropriate methodology, collecting, organising and analysing your primary sources and writing up your research and findings in an extended essay. You will also develop your verbal skills through an oral exam and preparation for that assignment.
Module code: HIS3038
The Special Relationship: Britain and the USA
The Special Relationship: Britain and the USA concentrates on the major diplomatic, economic and cultural meeting points of arguably the two most influential nations of the 20th century. You will study how their relationship – at times good and at times bad – influenced the course of international history. It is a relationship of unparalleled closeness and complexity which persists into the present day. By analysing the principle issues that arose between these two competitive yet cooperative states, we may be in a position to judge to what extent the relationship actually deserves the epithet ‘special’.
Module code: HIS3036
Language 3 enables you to build on and develop your previous language knowledge in French, German, Arabic, Italian, Mandarin or Spanish. You must have either studied the prior language module in the previous year or be able to demonstrate equivalent knowledge of your target language (though you will not be able to study a language you are already fluent or proficient in). The language levels available will be determined by the continuation of corresponding groups from the previous language module. You will gain the language skills necessary to become a more proficient user of the language. Classes will be taught in an interactive and communicative manner using authentic materials to promote meaningful communication. They will be conducted in the target language as much as possible. Emphasis will be on speaking and listening, with appropriate attention also being paid to other communication skills. Other work will include a variety of tasks which may be completed in the Language Centre.
Module code: TLC3000
Optional modules provide an element of choice within the course curriculum. The availability of optional modules may vary from year to year and will be subject to minimum student numbers being achieved. This means that the availability of specific optional modules cannot be guaranteed. Optional module selection may also be affected by timetabling requirements. Some restrictions on optional module choice or combinations of optional modules may apply.
In addition to the optional module choices listed, it may also be possible to apply to study an alternative 20-credit module in Year 2 and/or Year 3, chosen from outside the course curriculum. Some restrictions on this elective module choice may apply.
How you'll study
The programme has been carefully designed to ensure that you develop your confidence, knowledge and skills in a gradual way and in a highly supportive environment. In the first year, you will have invaluable in-depth sessions each week with your Personal Tutor. We also have an open door policy, so that you can have easy access to academic staff outside the classroom. We see our relationship with you as one in which we work together to help you succeed.
You will have access to the latest History resources that will support your learning. You will be able to read newspapers and journals online from the eighteenth to the twenty-first centuries, consult the latest journals, and use websites that are created to support each topic. You will also be taught to use sophisticated digital research techniques.
Timetables for your first week are normally available at the end of August prior to enrolment in September. You can expect to receive your timetable for the rest of the academic year during your first week. Please note that while we make every effort to ensure that timetables are as student-friendly as possible, scheduled teaching can take place on any day of the week. Wednesday afternoons are normally reserved for sports and cultural activities.
How you'll be assessed
The focus in all assignments is on analysis and argumentation. These skills will be assessed using a variety of different exercises including essays, book reviews, primary source analysis, presentations and contributions to online discussions.
Some modules also have exams, however in the first year these never account for more than 30% of a module mark, with this rising to 40% in the second and third year.
In the final year of your degree a great deal of emphasis is placed on individual research-based modules.
Who will be teaching you
You will be taught by a team of highly experienced and enthusiastic teachers, who research and write History. They actively participate in debates in the media, as well as act as consultants in a wide range of areas, including contributing to the development of online archives at the British Library.
They are at the cutting edge of the subject and will share with you their ideas and new interpretations in a wide range of topics. In the most recent Research Excellence Framework (REF), more that 50% of their published research was judged to be either ‘world-leading’ or ‘internationally-excellent’.
Typical offer 112-120 UCAS Tariff points. No specific subjects are required.
BTEC Extended Diploma (or combination of BTEC QCF qualifications)
Distinction, Merit, Merit (DMM).
Overall grade of Merit.
International Baccalaureate (IB)
We are happy to accept IB qualifications which achieve the required number of UCAS Tariff points. Subject-specific requirements at Higher Level (HL) Grade 5 may apply.
Access to Higher Education Diploma
45 credits at Level 3, for example 15 credits at Distinction and 30 credits at Merit or 24 credits at Distinction and 21 credits at Merit. The required total can be attained from various credit combinations.
Please note, the above examples may differ from actual offers made. A combination of A Level and BTEC awards may also be accepted.
If you have a minimum of two A Levels (or equivalent), there is no maximum number of qualifications that we will accept UCAS points from. This includes additional qualifications such as Extended Project Qualification (EPQ), AS Levels that haven't been continued to A Level, and General Studies AS or A Level awards.
English language requirements
International students require IELTS 6.0, with a score no lower than 5.5 in each individual component, or an equivalent English language qualification.
If your current level of English is half a band, one band, or one-and-a-half bands lower, either overall or in one or two elements, you may want to consider our Pre-Sessional English course.
Should you accept an offer of a place to study with us and formally enrol as a student, you will be subject to the provisions of the regulations, rules, codes, conditions and policies which apply to our students. These are available at www.edgehill.ac.uk/studentterms.
Did you know?
If you join a full time undergraduate degree at Edge Hill University, we will guarantee you the
offer of a room in our halls of residence for the first year of your course.
The Department of History, Geography and Social Sciences is based in the Geosciences building. The contemporary facilities combine with a friendly and supportive learning environment to ensure that your studies are a rich and rewarding experience.
The Geosciences building features a large lecture theatre, small group teaching rooms, IT facilities and smaller tutorial spaces. There is also a large social area which encourages a more informal and interactive style of learning.
The UK tuition fee rate is subject to final Government approval for academic year 2023/24 entry. The University may administer a small inflationary rise in tuition fees, in line with Government policy, in subsequent academic years as you progress through the course.
EU/EEA and Swiss students who have settled or pre-settled status under the EU Settlement Scheme, as well as Irish nationals, may be eligible for the UK tuition fee rate.
Subject to eligibility, UK students joining this course can apply for a Tuition Fee Loan from the Government to cover the full cost of tuition fees. UK students enrolling on the course may also be eligible to apply for additional funding to help with living costs.
Please view the relevant Money Matters guide for comprehensive information about the financial support available to eligible UK students.
EU/EEA and Swiss students who have settled or pre-settled status under the EU Settlement Scheme may be eligible to apply for financial support. Irish nationals can ordinarily apply to Student Universal Support Ireland (SUSI).
If you are an EU student who does not have settled or pre-settled status, or are an international student from a non-EU country, please see our international student finance pages.
Your future career
One of the great things about our BA (Hons) History degree is that it doesn’t restrict graduates to a single, specific career path. Your knowledge and skills can be applied to a wide choice of different careers. Some of our graduates have gone on to work in:
Careers support is built into our history course, from allocating you a Personal Tutor, to providing you with the opportunity to our placement-based Making History module.
Many of our students go on to further study after their degree. You could study a Masters degree or opt for an MRes focused on a specific research project. We support graduates who want to go into teaching with their PGCE applications. Some of our students have continued right through to PhD level.
Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of this information, however our courses are subject to ongoing review and development. Changing circumstances may necessitate alteration to, or the cancellation of, courses.
Changes may be necessary to comply with the requirements of professional bodies, revisions to subject benchmarks statements, to keep courses updated and contemporary, or as a result of student feedback. We reserve the right to make variations if we consider such action to be necessary or in the best interests of students.
Track changes to this course
Addition of Work Placement Feature Icon - 18 January 2023
Work Placement feature icon added as Year 1 compulsory module “Making History” is a placement-based module.
Change to Entry Requirements - 18 November 2022
Entry requirements updated to remove preferred subjects.
Change of Department - 25 July 2022
With effect from 1 August 2022, History students will be based in the Department of History, Geography and Social Sciences. The new department will be based in the Geosciences building.
Change to Modes of Study - 15 July 2021
The programme is now available to study on a full-time or part-time basis. It was previously available full-time only.