Dr Linda Kaye

Dr Linda Kaye portrait photo


Research Qualifications
My research specialism is in the area of cyberpsychology. I am specifically interested in exploring  how online settings can promote social inclusion and well-being. Specific areas of research include:
1. What behaviours signal (social) identity in online settings? (e.g., via language use, avatar representation etc)
2. What behaviours are “social” in online settings? (e.g., functions of emoji, constituent social media use behaviours, etc)
3. What are the psychological and behavioural impacts of identity and online behaviours?
4. Gender issues in stigmatised settings
BSc (Hons) Psychology (University of Leeds), 2006
Postgraduate Certificate of Learning and Teaching in Higher Education (University of Central Lancashire), 2010
PhD Psychology (University of Central Lancashire), 2011
Chartered Psychologist, British Psychological Society
Senior Fellow of Higher Education Academy
Institutional Learning and Teaching Fellow
Chair of BPS Cyberpsychology Section
Editorial Board Member, Computers in Human Behavior and Computer in Human Behavior Reports
Teaching Contact
PSY1117: Real World Psychology
EDP2004: The Psychology of Teaching, Learning and Instruction (Module Leader)
PSY3131: Psychology and the Virtual World (Module Leader)
PSY3135: Dissertation
THE7001: Exploring Practice in Teaching and Learning (Personal Academic Tutor)
THE7002: Curriculum Design for Learning (Personal Academic Tutor)
THE7003: Developing Practice through Pedagogic Research (Personal Academic Tutor)
PhD Supervision
Dr Linda Kaye
Department of Psychology
Edge Hill University
St Helens Road
L39 4QP
Phone: 01695 584413
Email: Linda Kaye
Office: LP 2.64
Web: http://lindakkaye.wix.com/dr-linda-kaye
Pronouns- she/her/hers




Kaye, L. K. (2022). Issues and Debates in Cyberpsychology. Open University Press

Journal Articles

Full-text links to these publications available on the Edge Hill University Research Information Repository

Kaye, L. K., Darker, G., Rodriguez Cuadrado, S., Wall, H. J., & Malone, S. A. (2022). The Emoji Spatial Stroop Task: Exploring the impact of vertical positioning of emoji on emotional processing. Computers in Human Behavior, 107267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2022.107267

Cross, L., Kaye, L. K., Savastinanovs, J., McLatchie, N., Johnston, M., Whiteman, L., Mooney, R., & Atherton, G. (2022). Gendered violence and sexualized representations in video games: (Lack of) effect on gender-related attitudes. New Media and Society. https://doi.org/10.1177/14614448221075736

Ferguson, C. J., Kaye, L. K., Branley-Bell, D., Markey, P., Ivory, J. D., Klisinan, D., Elson, M., Smyth, M., Hogg, J. L., McDonnell, D., Nichols, D., Siddiqui, S., Gregerson, M., & Wilson, J. (in press). Like This Meta-analysis: Screen Media and Mental Health. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice

Connolly, T., Atherton, G., Cross, L., & Kaye, L. K. (2021). The Wild West of measurement: Exploring problematic technology use cut off scores and their relation to psychosocial and behavioural outcomes in adolescence. Computers in Human Behavior, 125, e106965. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2021.106965

Kutuk, G., Putwain, D. W., Kaye, L. K., & Garrett, B. (2021). Relationship between gender stereotyping and foreign language performance: Examining the mediating role of language learners’ anxiety and self-efficacy. British Journal of Educational Psychology. e12446. https://bpspsychub.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/bjep.12446

Kaye, L. K. (2021). Exploring “socialness” in social media. Computers in Human Behavior Reports, 3. 100083. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chbr.2021.100083

Selim, H., Scott, G. G., & Kaye, L. K. (2021). A cross-cultural study to explore the differential impacts of online social capital on psychosocial outcomes. Computers in Human Behavior Reports, 3, 100087. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chbr.2021.100087

Etchells, P. J., Davidson, B. I., Kaye, L. K., Ellis, D.A., & Lieberoth, A. (2021). Researchers should avoid causally attributing suicide to video game play as a single factor.  Perspectives in Psychiatric Care. https://doi.org/10.1111/ppc.12762

Kaye, L. K. (2021). Understanding the “social” nature of digital games. Entertainment Computing 38, 100420. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.entcom.2021.100420

Kaye, L. K., Rodriguez Cuadrado, S., Malone, S. A., Wall, H. J., Gaunt, E., Mulvey, A. L., & Graham, C. (2021). How emotional are emoji?: Exploring the effect of emotional valence on the processing of emoji stimuli. Computers in Human Behavior, 116, 106648. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2020.106648

Pennington, C. R., Kaye, L. K., Qureshi, A. W., & Heim, D. (2021). Gender Differences in Secondary Education Students’ Scholastic Attitudes and Attainment: An Exploratory Study. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 51 (1), 3-16. https://doi.org/10.1111/jasp.12711

Satchell, L., Fido, D., Harper, C., Shaw, H., Davidson, B. I., Ellis, D. A., Hart, C. M., Jalil, R., Jones, A., Kaye, L. K., Lancaster, G., & Pavetich, M. (2021). Development of an Offline-Friend Addiction Questionnaire (O-FAQ): Are most people really social addicts? Behavior Research Methods 53, 1097–1106.  https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-020-01462-9

Spiridon, E., Davies, J., Kaye, L. K., Nicolson, R. I., Tang, B. W. X., Tan, A. J. Y., & Ransom, H. J. (2021). Exploring the impact of group identity at university on psychological and behavioural outcomes. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 45 (7), 932-942. https://doi.org/10.1080/0309877X.2020.1831450

Barron, R. L., & Kaye, L. K (2020). Self-regulation strategies of smartphone use during university self-study. The Journal of Social Media for Learning, 1 (1), 47-57

O’Connor, D.B., Aggleton, J.P., Chakarabati, D., Cooper, C.L., Creswell, C., Dunsmuir, S., Fiske, S.T., Gathercole, S., Gough, B., Ireland, J.L., Jones, M.V., Jowett, A., Kagan, C., Karanika-Murray, M., Kaye, L.K., Kumari, V., Lewandowsky, S., Lightman, S., Malpass, D., Meins, E., Morgan, B.P., Morrison Coulthard, L.J., Reicher, S.D., Schacter, D.L., Sherman, S.M., Simms, V., Williams, A., Wykes, T., & Armitage, C.J. (2020). Research Priorities for the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond: A call to action for psychological science. British Journal of Psychology, 111 (4), 603- 629. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12468

Kaye, L. K. (2020). When the job hunts you. The Psychologist, 34 (7), 76-79

Kaye, L. K., Orben, A., Ellis, D. A., Hunter, S. C, & Houghton, S. (2020). The Conceptual and Methodological Mayhem of “Screen-time”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17 (10), 3661. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103661

Spiridon, E., Kaye, L. K., Nicolson, R. I., Ransom, H. J., Tan, A. J. Y., & Tang, B. W. X. (2020). Integrated Learning Communities as a peer support initiative for first year university students. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 50 (7), 394-405 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jasp.12668

Kaye, L. K., Wall, H. J., & Hird, A. T. (2020). Less is more when rating Extraversion: Behavioural cues and interpersonal perceptions on the platform of Facebook. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 9 (4), 465–474. https://doi.org/10.1037/ppm0000263

Kutuk, G., Putwain, D., Kaye, L. K., & Garrett, B. (2020). Development and Validation of a New Multidimensional Language Class Anxiety Scale. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 38 (5), 649-658. https://doi.org/10.1177/0734282919875881

Kaye, L. K. & Quinn, S. (2020). Psychosocial outcomes associated with engagement with online chat systems.  International Journal of Human Computer Interaction, 36 (2), 190-198. doi: 10.1080/10447318.2019.1620524

Ellis, D. A., Davidson, B. I., & Kaye, L. K. (2019). Should smartphones be banned for children or does cyberpsychology have a bigger problem? Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 22 (7), 508-509

Bates, E. A., Klement, K. R., Kaye, L. K., & Pennington, C. R. (2019). The Impact of Gendered Stereotypes on Perceptions of Violence: A Commentary. Sex Roles, 81, 34-43. doi.10.1007/s11199-019-01029-9

Bates, E. A., Kaye, L. K., Pennington, C. R., & Hamlin, I. (2019). What about the male victims? Exploring the impact of gender stereotyping on implicit attitudes and behavioural intentions associated with intimate partner violence. Sex Roles, 81, 1-15. doi.10.1007/s11199-018-0949-x

Kinsella, C., Putwain, D., & Kaye, L. K. (2019). “You heard me swear but you never heard me!” Negotiating agency in the Pupil Referral Unit Classroom. Mind, Culture and Activity, 26 (1), 41-60

Kaye, L. K., Carlisle, C.-R., & Griffiths, L. R. W. (2019). A contextual account of the psychosocial impacts of social identity in a sample of digital gamers. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 8(3), 259–268

Wall, H. J., Campbell, C. C, Kaye, L. K., Levy, A. R., & Bhullar, N. (2019). Personality Profiles and Persuasion: An exploratory study investigating the role of the Big-5, Type D Personality and the Dark Triad on Susceptibility to Persuasion. Personality and Individual Differences, 139, 69-75

Bates, E. A., Kaye, L. K., & McCann, J. J. (2019). A snapshot of the student experience: Exploring student satisfaction through the use of photographic elicitation. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 43 (3), 291-304. doi: 10.1080/0309877X.2017.1359507

Powell, J. & Kaye, L. K. (2018). The Effect of Physical Co-Location on Social Competence, Gaming Engagement and Gamer Identity within a Competitive Multiplayer Game. Open Science Journal of Psychology, 5, (4), 38-44

Bignell, S., Fullwood, C., Kaye, L. K., & Attrill-Smith, A. (2018). Overlapping interests in a complex and ambiguous world. The Psychologist, 31, 10-13.

Kaye, L. K., & Pennington, C. R. (2018). Moving beyond “Us” versus “Them”: Social identities in digital gaming. BPS Psychology of Women Section Review (Special issue on Gender and Gaming) 1 (2), 3-7

Van Rooji, A. J., Ferguson, C., Colder Carras, M., Kardefelt-Winther, D., Shi, J., Aarseth, E., et al., (2018). A weak scientific basis for gaming disorder: Let us err on the side of caution. Journal of Behavioral Addiction, 1-9. doi: 10.1556/2006.7.2018.19.

Pennington, C.R., Kaye, L. K., & McCann, J. J. (2018). Applications of the multi-threat framework of stereotype threat in the context of digital gaming. PLoS ONE, 13 (2), e0192137

Kaye, L. K., Monk, R. L., Wall, H. J, Hamlin, I., & Qureshi, A. W. (2018). The effect of flow and context on in-vivo positive mood in digital gaming. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 110, 45-52. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2017.10.005

Kaye, L. K., Pennington, C.R., & McCann, J. J. (2018). Do casual gaming environments evoke stereotype threat? Examining the effects of explicit priming and avatar gender. Computers in Human Behavior, 78, 142-150

Ellis, D. A., Kaye, L. K., Wilcockson, T. D. W., & Ryding, F. C. (2018). Digital Traces of behaviour within addiction: Response to Griffiths (2017). International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction 16 (1), 240-245

Ryding, F. C., & Kaye, L. K (2018). “Internet Addiction”: A conceptual minefield. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction 16 (1), 225-232. doi: 10.1007/s11469-017-9811-6

Pennington, C. R., Bates, E. A., Kaye, L. K., & Bolam, L. T. (2018). Transitioning in Higher Education: An exploration of psychological and contextual factors affecting student satisfaction. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 42 (5), 596-607. doi: 10.1080/0309877X.2017.1302563

Pennington, C. R., Kaye, L. K., Qureshi, A., & Heim, D. (2018). Controlling for prior attainment reduces the positive influence that single-sex classroom initiatives exert on high school students’ scholastic achievement. Sex Roles, 78 (5-6), 385-393. doi: 10.1007/s11199-017-0799-y

Kaye, L. K., Gresty, C. E. & Stubbs-Ennis, N. (2017). Exploring stereotypical perceptions of female players in digital gaming contexts. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking 20 (12), 740-745. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2017.0294

Kaye, L. K. & Levy, A. R. (2017). Reconceptualising the link between screen- time when gaming with physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking 20 (12), 769-773. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2017.0067

Bates, E. A., McCann, J. J., Kaye, L. K., & Taylor, J.  (2017). “Beyond Words”: A researcher’s guide to using photo elicitation in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 14 (4), 459-481

Fullwood, C., Quinn, S., Kaye, L. K., & Redding, C. (2017). My Virtual friend: A qualitative analysis of the attitudes and experiences of Smartphone users: Implications for Smartphone attachment. Computers in Human Behavior, 75, 347–355. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2017.05.029

Kaye, L. K., Kowert, R., & Quinn, S. (2017). The role of social identity and online social capital on psychosocial outcomes in MMO players. Computers in Human Behavior, 74 , 215-223. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2017.04.030

Kaye, L. K., Malone, S. A., & Wall, H. J. (2017). Emojis: Insights, Affordances and Possibilities for Psychological Science. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 21 (2), 66-68. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2016.10.007

Kaye, L. K., & Bates, E. A. (2017). The impact of higher fees on students’ reasons for attending university. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 41 (3), 379-392. doi: 10.1080/0309877X.2015.1117597

Laffan, D. A, Greaney, J., Barton, H., & Kaye, L. K. (2016). The Relationships between the Structural Video Game Characteristics, Video Game Engagement and Happiness among Individuals who Play Video Games. Computers in Human Behavior, 65, 544-549. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2016.09.004

Kinsella, C., Putwain, D., & Kaye, L. K. (2016). Learner Engagement: A Review of Approaches in the Psychology of Education and Art Education. Review of Education, 4 (3), 266-289. doi: 10.1002/rev3.3063

Kaye, L. K. (2016). Book Review: An Introduction to Cyberpsychology. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 19 (4), 294-294. doi:10.1089/cyber.2016.29033.lkk

Wall, H. J, Kaye, L. K., & Malone, S. A. (2016). An exploration of psychological factors on emoticon usage and implications for judgement accuracy. Computers in Human Behavior, 62, 70-78. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2016.03.040

Kaye, L. K., Wall, H. J., & Malone, S. A. (2016). “Turn that frown upside-down”: A contextual account of emoticon usage on different virtual platforms. Computers in Human Behavior, 60, 463-467. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2016.02.088

Kaye, L. K., & Pennington, C.R.(2016). “Girls can’t play”: The Effects of Stereotype Threat on Females’ Gaming Performance. Computers in Human Behavior, 59, 202-209. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2016.02.020

Darbyshire, D. E., Kirk, C., Wall, H. J., & Kaye, L. K. (2016). Don’t Judge a (Face)Book by its Cover: Exploring Judgement Accuracy of Others’ Personality on Facebook. Computers in Human Behavior, 58, 380-387.  doi:10.1016/j.chb.2016.01.021

Kaye, L. K. (2016). Exploring flow experiences in cooperative digital gaming contexts.  Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 286-291. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.09.023

Knight, C., & Kaye, L. K. (2016). “To Tweet or not to Tweet?”: A comparison of academics’ and students’ usage of Twitter in academic contexts. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 53 (2), 145-155. doi: 10.1080/14703297.2014.928229

Kleban, C. & Kaye, L. K. (2015). Psychosocial impacts of engaging in Second Life for individuals with physical disabilities. Computers in Human Behavior, 45, 59-68. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2014.12.004

Bates, E. A., & Kaye, L. K. (2014). Exploring the impact of the increased tuition fees on academic staffs’ experiences in post-92 Universities: A small-scale qualitative study. Education Sciences, 4 (4), 229-246. doi: 10.3390/educsci4040229

Bates, E. A., & Kaye, L. K. (2014). “I’d be expecting caviar in lectures”: The impact of the new fee regime on undergraduate students’ expectations of Higher Education. Higher Education, 67 (5), 655-673. doi: 10.1007/s10734-013-9671-3

Kaye, L. K. & Bryce, J. (2014). Go with the flow: The experience and affective outcomes of solo versus social gameplay. Journal of Gaming and Virtual Worlds, 6 (1), 49-60. doi: 10.1386/jgvw.6.1.49_1

Kaye, L. K. & Brewer, G. (2013). Teacher and Student Focused Approaches: Influence of Learning Approach and Self Efficacy in a Psychology Postgraduate Sample. Psychology Learning and Teaching Journal, 12 (1), 12-19

Kaye, L. K. & Bryce, J. (2012). Putting the “fun factor” into gaming: The influence of social contexts on experiences of playing videogames. International Journal of Internet Science, 7(1), 23-37.

Book Chapters

Kaye, L. K., Kuss, D. J., & Rumpf, H. (2021). Conceptual and methodological considerations of Gaming Disorder and Internet Gaming Disorder. In N. el-Guebaly, G. Carrà, M. Galanter & A. M. Baldacchino (Eds.), Textbook of Addiction Treatment: International Perspectives, 2nd edition (pp. 967-977). Springer Nature

Kaye, L. K. (2019). The role of gamer identity on digital gaming outcomes. In A. Marcus & W. Wang (Eds.), Design, User Experience and Usability: Design, Philosophy and Theory (pp. 460-465). Springer.

Kaye, L. K. (2019). Gaming classifications and player demographics. In A. Attrill-Smith, C. Fullwood, D. Kuss, & M. Keep (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Cyberpsychology (pp. 609-623). Oxford: Oxford University Press

Kowert, R., & Kaye, L. K. (2018). Video Games are not Socially Isolating. In C. Ferguson (Ed.), Video Game Influences on Aggression, Cognition, and Attention (pp. 185-195). New York: Springer

Kaye, L. K., Monk, R. L., & Hamlin, I. (2018). “Feeling appy?”: Using app-based methodology to explore contextual effects on real-time cognitions, affect and behaviours. In C. Costa & J. Condie (Eds.), Doing research in and on the digital: Research methods across fields of inquiry (pp. 11-29). London: Routledge

Wall, H. J., & Kaye, L. K. (2018). Online Decision Making: Online influence and implications for Cyber Security. In J. McAlaney, L. Frumkin & V. Benson (Eds.), Psychological and Behavioral Examinations in Cyber Security (pp. 1-25). IGI Global

Kaye, L. K. (2018). Online Research Methods for Cybersecurity Research. In J. McAlaney, L. Frumkin & V. Benson (Eds.), Psychological and Behavioral Examinations in Cyber Security (pp. 253-265). IGI Global

Kaye, L. K. (2017). The Process Model of Gameplay to Understand Digital Gaming Outcomes. In M. Khosrow-Pour (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology (4th Edition). (pp. 3317-3326). Hershey PA: IGI Global

Kaye, L. K. (2016). Applying psychology within games development: What can the gaming industry learn from this discipline? In. A. Attrill & C. Fullwood (Eds.), Applied Cyberpsychology: Practical Applications of Cyberpsychological Theory and Research (pp. 179-196). Palgrave Macmillan

Kinsella, C., Kaye, L. K. & Putwain, D. (2015). Can arts-based education help re-engage excluded learners?: A case study of an arts-based programme aimed at enhancing educational engagement. In. G. Brewer & R. Hogarth (Eds.), Creative Education, Teaching and Learning (pp. 290-306). London: Palgrave Macmillan

Kaye, L. K. (2014). Football Manager as a persuasive game for social identity formation. In D. Ruggiero (Eds.), Cases on the Societal Effects of Persuasive Games. (pp. 1-17). IGI Global. doi: 10.4018/978-1-4666-6206-3.ch001

Bryce, J. & Kaye, L. K. (2011). Computer and videogames. In G. Brewer (Ed). Media Psychology. (pp. 101-114). London: Palgrave MacMillan

Research Funding

Kaye, L. K. (2020). Head in the Clouds’ campaign: Human-based threats in the office. TrendMicro on behalf of Waggener Edstrom Worldwide Ltd (£1000,00)

Kaye, L. K., & Pennington, C. R. (2016-2017). “Girls can’t play!”: Exploring the effects of stereotype threat on digital gaming outcomes for female players. Edge Hill University Research Investment Fund (£13,034.28)

Kaye, L. K., Monk, R. L., & Wall, H. J. (2014-2015). The impact of social contexts on emotional experiences of playing digital games. Edge Hill University Research Investment Fund (£8300)

Malone, S. A., & Kaye, L. K. (2013-). Autism and Virtual Worlds. Australian Catholic University Research Grant Scheme ($3840.82)

Kaye, L. K. (2012). Applying the Principles of Psychology to Education: HEA Workshop Event. Higher Education Academy (£746.70)

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