|Eye-tracking methodology, visual search, how eye movements change as a function of expertise, and how a person’s eye gaze attracts and directs other people’s visual, cognitive and social processing. Medical image perception is one of the primary visual expertise domains in which I investigate these issues, and this research is getting us closer to establishing why abnormalities such as cancer are still missed.||BSc (Hons) Psychology, University of Sunderland, 2004
PhD Psychology, Lancaster University, 2010
Postgraduate Certificate of Learning and Teaching in Higher Education, Edge Hill University, 2014
Fellow of Higher Education Academy
Chartered Psychologist, British Psychological Society
|PSY1116: Investigative Methods in Psychology (Module Leader)
PSY1118 / PSY1119: Investigating Psychology 1 & 2 (Module Leader)
PSY1117: Real World Psychology
PSY3130: Research Technologies & Tools
SPS4007: Psychology Masters (Conversion) Dissertation
|Dr Damien Litchfield
Associate Head of Department (Learning & Teaching)
Department of Psychology
Edge Hill University
Phone: 01695 584085
Email: Damien Litchfield
Office: LP 2.64
|Prof Linden Ball (University of Central Lancashire), Dr Trevor Crawford (University of Lancaster),
Dr Tim Donovan (University of Cumbria), Prof. Tamara van Gog (Universiteit Utrecht),
Dr Lauren Knott (City University London) Dr Diederick Niehorster (Lund University)
Full-text links to these publications available on the Edge Hill University Research Information Repository
Marsh, J. E., Threadgold, E., Barker, M. E., Litchfield, D., Degno, F., & Ball, L. J. (2021). The susceptibility of compound remote associate problems to disruption by irrelevant sound: A window onto the component processes underpinning creative cognition?. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 1-30.
McNeill, A.M., Monk, R.L., Qureshi, A.W., Litchfield, D., & Heim, D., (In Press). The effects of placebo and moderate dose alcohol on attentional bias, inhibitory control and subjective craving. Alcohol and Alcoholism.
Litchfield, D. & Donovan, T. (2019). Expecting the initial glimpse: prior target knowledge activation or repeated search does not eliminate scene preview search benefits. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 31, 49-63.
Pennington, C., Litchfield D., Latchie, N., & Heim, D. (2019). Stereotype Threat May Not Impact Women’s Inhibitory Control or Mathematical Performance: Providing Support for the Null Hypothesis. European Journal of Social Psychology, 49, 717-734.
Gallagher-Mitchell, T., Simms, V., & Litchfield, D. (2018). Learning from where ‘eye’ remotely look or point: impact on number line estimation error in adults. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 71,1526-1534.
van Wermeskerken, M., Litchfield, D., & van Gog, T (2018). What am I looking at? Interpreting dynamic and static gaze displays. Cognitive Science, 42, 220-252.
Donovan, T., Litchfield, D., & Crawford, T.J. (2017). Editorial: Medical Image Perception: How Much Do We Understand It? Frontiers Psychology, 8, 2072.
Litchfield, D. & Donovan, T. (2017). The flash-preview moving window paradigm: Unpacking visual expertise one glimpse at a time. Frontline Learning Research, 5, 80-94.
Lunn, J., Donovan, T., Litchfield, D., Lewis, C., Davies, R., & Crawford, T. (2017). Social attention in children with Epilepsy. Brain and Cognition, 113, 76-84
Beattie, G., Marselle, M., McGuire, L., & Litchfield, D. (2017). Staying over-optimistic about the future: Uncovering attentional biases to climate change messages. Semiotica, 2017, 21-64.
Crawford, T., Litchfield, D., & Donovan, T. (2017). ‘Target absent’ decisions in cancer nodule detection are more efficient than ‘target present’ decisions! Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 40, e136.
Lunn, J., Donovan, T., Litchfield, D., Lewis, C., Davies, R., & Crawford, T. (2016). Saccadic eye movement abnormalities in children with Epilepsy. PLoS ONE, 11(8): e0160508.
Litchfield, D. & Donovan, T. (2016). Worth a quick look? Initial scene previews can guide eye movements as a function of domain-specific expertise but can also have unforeseen costs. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 42, 982-994.
Ball, L. J., Marsh, J., Litchfield, D., Cook, & R., & Booth, N. (2015). When distraction helps: Evidence that concurrent articulation and irrelevant speech can facilitate insight problem solving. Thinking & Reasoning, 21 (1), 76-96. doi: 10.1080/13546783.2014.934399.
Ball, L. J., & Litchfield, D. (2013). Interactivity and embodied cues in problem solving, learning and insight: Further contributions to a “theory of hints”. In S. Cowley & F. Vallee-Tourangeau (Eds.), Cognition Beyond the Brain: Interactivity, Computation and Human Artifice (pp. 223-240). London: Springer.
Scott, H., Hall, L., Litchfield, D., & Westwood, D. (2013). Visual information search in simulated junction negotiation: Gaze transitions of young novice, young experienced and older experienced drivers. Journal of Safety Research, 45, 111-116.
Donovan, T., & Litchfield, D. (2013). Looking for cancer: Expertise related differences in searching and decision making. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 27, 43-49.
Middleton, H., Litchfield, D., & Westwood, D. (2012). Gaze sequence of young novice, younger experienced and older experienced drivers at a simulated junction. In A. G. Gale, J. Bloomfield, D. Giguère, & R. J. Kiefer (Eds.), Vision in Vehicles XI, 88-95, Loughbrough: Applied Vision Research Centre. ISBN: 978-0-9571266-3-3.
Donovan, T., Crawford., T., & Litchfield, D. (2012). Negative priming for target selection with saccadic eye movements. Experimental Brain Research, 222, 483-494.
Waton, A., Kakwani, R., Cooke, N. J., Litchfield, D., Kok, D., Middleton, H., & Irwin, L. (2011). Immobilisation of the knee and ankle and its impact on drivers’ braking times: A DRIVING SIMULATOR STUDY. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 93, 928-931.
Litchfield, D., & Ball, L. J. (2011). Using another’s gaze as an explicit aid to insight problem solving. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64, 649-656.
Litchfield, D., Ball, L. J., Donovan, T., Manning, D. J., & Crawford, T. (2010). Viewing another person’s eye movements improves identification of pulmonary nodules in chest x-ray inspection. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 16, 251-262.
Litchfield, D., Ball, L. J., Donovan, T., Manning, D. J., & Crawford, T. (2008). Learning from others: Effects of viewing another person’s eye movements while searching for chest nodules. In B. Sahiner, & D.J. Manning (Eds.), Proceedings of SPIE Medical Imaging 2008: Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment, Volume 9, 34. San Diego, CA, USA. ***Awarded a Special Commendation by the SPIE Committee and the Michael B. Merickel Best Student Paper Runner-up Award***
2019–2021: British Psychology Society Research seminar series: ‘Eye movements and real world behaviour’. PI: Dr Thomson (Salford University), CIs: Dr Litchfield (Edge Hill University), Prof. Liversedge (University of Central Lancashire), Prof. Donnelly (Liverpool Hope University) £3000.
Litchfield, D. (2013). “Proposal for Equipment: SR-Research Eyelink 1000 Desktop Eye-tracker”. Edge Hill University Capital Investment Fund (£33,990).
2012–2017: NWO Vidi Grant: ‘Off with their heads! The effects of seeing a model’s head and gaze on learning from modeling examples’. Prof. van Gog (Erasmus University) (PI): Expert Panel Advisor with Prof. Holmqvist (Lund University) & Dr Jarodzka (Open Universiteit), €800,000.