Improving Professional Practice and Service Delivery through Education and Leadership (IPPSDEL)

The Improving Professional Practice and Service Delivery through Education and Leadership (IPPSDEL)  research theme led by Professor Jeremy Brown, Professor John Sandars and Dr Axel Kaehne has three main streams of work.  A Service Level Agreement (SLA) Health Education England (HEE) North (50k) running from April 2018 to March 2019 and various external funding funds projects within these 3 work streams.

Performance Enhancement

Focusing on the life span of professional development with a focus on coping at times of transition.  Funded projects are listed below:

Current Projects

An evaluation is being undertaken in collaboration with Aintree University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (led by Dr Peter Groom, Consultant Anaesthetist) exploring anaesthetic trainees’ ability and confidence to perform an emergency surgical cricothythoidotomy after the implementation of a collaboratice anesthetic and surgical training programme (CICO).

This project is funded by the Difficult Airways Society and the Mersey School of Anaesthesia (£2,970 to EHU).

Trans-disciplinary Research

A trans-disciplinary research project funded under the HEENW SLA is being undertaken entitled Enhancing professional performance in challenging environments (ENHANce)  (Professor John Sandars, Professor Jeremy Brown, Dr Andrew Levy and Professor Paresh Wankhade).  The research adopts insights from performance and ecological psychology to both understand and develop theory-driven approaches to improving performance.

Recent Publications

Moen, JM Brown, A. Kaehne (2018) Exploration of ‘perception of self’ as medical leader: does perception of self require a paradigm shift from clinician to clinical leader?

Gandomka, R, Sandars, John and Mirzazadeh, A (2018) Many questions remain to be answered about understanding self-regulated learning in the clinical environment. Medical Education, 52 (9)

Anderson, ES, Sandars, John and Kinnair, DJ (2018) The nature and benefits of team-based reflection on a patient death by healthcare professionals: A scoping review Journal of Interprofessional Care.

Vivekananda-Schmidt, Pirashanthie and Sandars, John (2018) Belongingness and its implications for undergraduate health professions education: a scoping review. Education for Primary Care. pp. 1-8.

Sandars, John and Patel, Rakesh (2018) Using personalised teaching and learning to improve clinical performance. British Journal of Hospital Medicine, 79 (2).

 Clearing the confusion about self-directed learning and self-regulated learning Gandomkar, Roghayeh and Sandars, John (2018) Clearing the confusion about self-directed learning and self-regulated learning. Medical Teacher.

Leggett, Heather, Sandars, John and Roberts, Trudie (2017) 12 Tips on how to provide self-regulated learning (SRL) enhanced feedback on clinical performance. Medical Teacher. pp. 1-5.

Moen, Charlotte and Brown, Jeremy (2017) Moving from patches to quilts: developing self aware, reflective leaders through curriculum innovation based on a Patchwork Text approach. Reflective Practice

Badwin, Basil, Bothara, Roshit, Latijnhouwers, Mieke, Smithies, Alisdair and Sandars, John (2017) The importance of design thinking in medical education. Medical Teacher.

Church, Helen, Rumbold, James and Sandars, John (2017) AMEE Guide 121: Applying Sport Psychology to Improve Clinical Performance. Medical Teacher.

Gandomkar, R and Sandars, John (2017) Unravelling the challenge of  using student learning goals in clinical education. Medical Education, 51 (7). pp. 676-677.

Walsh, Kieran and Sandars, John (2017) Shared decision-making tools:do they really involve patients? British Journal of Hospital Medicine, 78 (6). pp. 304-305.

A paper focusing on performance enhancement has been published in Medical Teacher in 2017: Church, Murdoch-Eaton, Patel, Sandars (2017) What can medical educators learn from the Rio 2016 Olympic games? 27:1-2.
How do newly-qualified doctors perceive empathy in medical training and practice


Georgina Spencer, Graduate Teaching Assistant, started in September 2017: ‘It’s not for me: improving the retention of newly qualified nurses entering their first year of work’.

Evaluating the impact of health professions education: developing evidence based methodologies and applying these to practice.

This stream of work is led by Professor Jeremy Brown, Professor John Sandars, Dr Axel Kaehne and covers several projects that have a focus on using theory-driven approaches to evaluate health professions education.  Please find examples below:


NHS England commissioned an evaluation of the first year of the Leading Change, Adding Value: a framework for nursing, midwifery and care staff (23K).  This report was submitted on time in March 2017 (Dr Kate Zubairu, Sergio Silverio, Jill Fillingham, Dr Axel Kaehne, Lynda Carey, Prof John Sandars,Prof Jeremy Brown).

Current Projects

As part of the HEE (NW) SLA there is an evaluation being undertaken to explore the impact of multiple learners in General Practice training hubs.


Another project, in collaboration with BMJ Best Practice, has a focus on the essential learner perspective and uses insights from Sen’s capability approach, with another project evaluating NHS organisational culture change using sociological insights from Normalisation Process Theory.

Recent Publications

Sandars, John (2018) It is time to celebrate the importance of evaluation in medical education. International Journal of Medical Education, 9. pp. 158-160.

Zubairu, Kate, Lievesley, Kate, Silverio, Sergio, McCann, Stephen, Fillingham, Jill, Kaehne, Axel, Sandars, John, Carey, Lynda, Aitkenhead, Susan and Brown, Jeremy (2018) A process evaluation of the first year of Leading Change, Adding Value. British Journal of Nursing, 27 (14). pp. 817-824.

Reid, Anne-Marie, Brown, Jeremy, Smith, Julie, Cope, Alexandra and Jamieson, Susan (2018) Ethical dilemmas and reflexivity in qualitative research. Perspectives on Medical Education, 7 (2). pp. 69-75.

Assessing the impact of the Advanced Resuscitation of the Newborn Infant course
Research or Evaluation – does the difference matter?
An Evaluation of National Health Service’s (NHS) Care Maker Programme: a mixed methods analysis
Producing useful evaluations in medical education


Charlotte O’Callaghan, Graduate Teaching Assistant, started in September 2017: ‘Did it really help? improving the impact of training in clinical education within the NHS.’

Health Service Research and Evaluation

The projects in this sub-theme investigate service changes, their effectiveness, potential impact and benefits. Current work in this area is undertaken with service managers and commissioners in the region to improve service quality and service efficiency.

Current projects

  • Evaluation of the BabyBox and the Advanced Paediatric Nursing Practitioner (part of the Cheshire and Merseyside Women and Children’s VANGUARD Programme).
  • Evaluation of the NeuroNetwork (part of the NeuroNetwork VANGUARD evaluation)
  • Evaluation of the Pop-up Maternity Unit (part of the Cheshire and Merseyside Women and Children’s VANGUARD Programme).

Staff involved

Jane Wilson
Dr Jane Bradbury
Chris Midgley
Dr Lesley Briscoe

Last updated on Last updated on Was this page helpful? Yes No Thanks for your feedback! Please tell us more: