BA (Hons) English Language with Creative Writing

  • Study Abroad Option Available
  • Sandwich Year Option Available
  • International Students Can Apply

Overview

UCAS Code:Q1W8
Course Length:3 Years Full-Time
Start Dates:September 2017
Department:Department of English, History & Creative Writing
Location:Edge Hill University
  • English at Edge Hill University ranked in the top two in the North West for learning resources in the National Student Survey 2016;
  • Creative Writing at Edge Hill University ranked in the top two in the North West for organisation & management in the National Student Survey 2015;
  • Develop your knowledge of English across a wide range of topics;
  • Explore the boundaries of your own creativity;
  • Gain insights into writing, immerse yourself in readings and workshops, and acquire a key set of communication skills.

Studying English Language with Creative Writing gives you considerable scope for investigating all aspects of the form and use of spoken and written English, while also encouraging you as an aspiring author and nurturing a new appreciation of literature. You will consider the ways English has developed over time, how it is changing and how and what it is used for. Gaining skills in listening, transcribing and analysing language, you will investigating topics such as how English became a world language and how identities are forged through the use of different varieties of English. The degree also encourages you to live the writing life and learn to read as a writer, developing creative writing skills and a creative philosophy, underpinned by reflection. If you love to read and write and want to explore the boundaries of your own creativity while immersing yourself in the power and influence of the written and spoken word, then this is the degree for you.

  • Download Course Leaflet
  • Watch Video
  • Book an Open Day
  • Request a Prospectus
  • Contact Us
Department of English, History & Creative Writing

Course in Depth

What will I study?

Year 1 enables you to acquire and consolidate fundamental skills in the analysis and description of the English Language, as well as studying its structure, sound system and variation. You will also be introduced to the art of writing fiction and poetry, gaining the skills required to start composing short stories and short observational poems.

Year 2 explores various aspects of the history and development of the English language, including English as a global language. In addition to this, you will receive a grounding in contemporary approaches to working with linguistic data and be able to choose from a range of optional modules exploring themes such as sociolinguistic variation, child language acquisition, discourse analysis, phonetics, and regional varieties of English. Creative Writing modules enable you to start writing groups of poems while furthering your understanding of the art of reading as a poet and exploring the techniques of writing your own short fiction.

In Year 3 you can study English Language modules focusing on subjects such as psycholinguistics, forensic linguistics, language and gender, language and identity, bilingualism, and teaching English to speakers of others languages. Additionally, you can choose to write a dissertation on a linguistic phenomenon of interest. Further Creative Writing modules present the opportunity to experiment in a range of poetic styles and concentrate on a longer work of your own. You will also continue your study of prose through working on more complex stories or writing chapters of a novel.

How will I study?

For the English Language elements of the degree, traditional lectures and seminar-based learning are complemented by student participation in workshops, student-led presentations, independent research projects and group activities. You will also make use of extensive online resources with the assistance of English language staff.

Teaching and learning for Creative Writing modules is centred on the writer’s workshop where there is a strong emphasis on participation. You will learn the habits of a professional writer, including keeping a writer’s journal, undertaking research and observation, re-drafting and editing text, and presenting work to a high standard. Self and peer appraisal are important, as are paired and small group work. Modules are underpinned by a sense of an audience – ranging from a student’s seminar group through electronic and paper publication to performance.

How will I be assessed?

You will be assessed through a combination of coursework and formal tests or examinations. This includes essays, linguistic analyses, class tests and group work for English Language modules, alongside creative practice, critical practice and reflection for Creative Writing modules.

Who will be teaching me?

You will be taught by an enthusiastic team of linguistic experts and professional writers whose work has been widely published, broadcast and staged.

The programme team publish and/or edit a variety of academic and literary journals, including the Journal of British and Irish Innovative PoetryShort Fiction in Theory and Practice and 21: Journal of Contemporary and Innovative Fiction.

They are committed to providing you with an excellent learning experience and update modules regularly to ensure that they are current and relevant.

A Great Study Environment

You will have the opportunity to attend workshops and readings with a variety of guest writers at the Arts Centre. Close links have also been established with Liverpool’s Everyman Theatre as well as other poetry venues across Merseyside.

The University hosts the annual Edge Hill Short Story Prize and runs a number of research groups, as well as occasional events.

Modules

Expand/Collapse all

Year 1

LNG1015 The Sounds of English (20 credits)

The Sounds of English introduces you to the sound systems of English and enables you to gain a basic understanding and knowledge of the description and classification of speech sounds. You will also enhance your knowledge and understanding of the ways in which phonetics and phonology are directly relevant to several fields, such as speech and language therapy, second language learning, education, literary stylistics, forensic phonetics and artificial intelligence.

LNG1016 The Structure of English (20 credits)

The Structure of English introduces you to the structure of the English language. You will learn to use grammatical terminology to label words, clauses, sentences and structures.

LNG1017 Studying English Language (20 credits)

Studying English Language provides a foundation for the exploration of the English language. The module enables you to acquire and consolidate key skills for degree-level study of the English language, such as locating relevant sources, critical reading, taking and organising notes, constructing an annotated bibliography, collecting and analysing data, reporting results via tables and graphs, summarising and quoting, preparing presentation slides, structuring an essay, and citing and listing sources.

LNG1018 Exploring Variation in English (20 credits)

Exploring Variation in English introduces how the English language is used in different ways by varied speakers. The module enables you to explore the diversity of English at the regional, national and global level. You will also focus on the methodology of linguistic research and carry out your own, small-scale sociolinguistic research project.

WRI1018 Introduction to Poetry (20 credits)

Introduction to Poetry guides you in the art of non-metrical poetry by concentrating upon shorter poems and upon building up techniques of perception, language and effect. This will be done in combination with the reading of poetry with the aim of integrating reading as a poet into an on-going practice of reflection. Emphasis will be placed upon journal writing and workshop practice.

WRI1019 Introduction to Fiction (20 credits)

Introduction to Fiction outlines the art of fiction by concentrating on shorter pieces, often referred to as ‘microfiction’. The module also builds up techniques of perception, language and effect, in combination with the reading of fiction, with the aim of integrating reading as a fiction writer into an on-going practice of reflection. Emphasis will be placed upon journal writing and workshop practice.

Language modules in French, Spanish or Mandarin, delivered at the Edge Hill Language Centre, are available to study as an integral part of this degree. A single Language module can be studied instead of either LNG1015 The Sounds of English or LNG1018 Exploring Variation in English.

Year 2

LNG2130 History and Development of English (20 credits)

History and Development of English examines the history and development of the English language from its earliest beginnings to the present-day. The module covers the influence of Chaucer and Shakespeare on the English language, as well as the role of dictionaries and the King James Bible in the making of what English has become today. There are sessions focusing on the rise of standard English, the nature and spread of dialect over time, the effect of linguistic borrowing, recent changes in the language, and the growth of regional standards of English around the world.

LNG2138 Methodology (20 credits)

Methodology provides an overview of contemporary approaches to working with linguistic data. You will explore current methodological approaches used by linguists according to the kinds of features, and levels of, language being explored.  Different specialists in the English Language team will introduce their approaches to linguistic data during the course of the module and present, critiquing recent research in their field that employs different kinds of methodologies.

WRI2023 The Art of Poetry (20 credits)

The Art of Poetry enables you to write in, and experiment with, a variety of styles, to read a range of contemporary and recent poetry, and to relate that reading to an on-going process of reflection that will feedback into a robust and inventive writing practice. Emphasis will be placed upon continuous journaling, intensive reading and workshop participation.

WRI2024 Writing Short Stories (20 credits)

Writing Short Stories explores the nature of the short story form and its specific demands on the writer. You will produce your own short fiction, responding to the diversity of styles and genres adopted by short story authors. You will also be given guidance on potential outlets for your work.

You will select two of the following modules:

LNG2128 English Language Long Essay (20 credits)

English Language Long Essay provides the opportunity to undertake a small scale project and engage in a fairly long piece of extended writing on a relevant topic of your own choice.

LNG2131 Introduction to Sociolinguistic Variation (20 credits)

Introduction to Sociolinguistic Variation immerses you in sociolinguistics, the study of language and society. At the heart of the discipline is the knowledge and understanding that there is no one ‘type’ of language used by every speaker within a given community but that it differs between social groups and contexts. Language use may vary based on factors such as age, gender, class, ethnicity and geography and this module will examine the relationship between language and these categories. Variationist sociolinguistics examines how language is used across society and explains why this variation exists. It relies on quantitative methodologies to draw results from large pools of data, and on a broader, interdisciplinary understanding of society and culture to interpret those results.

LNG2132 Language of Shakespeare and His Time (20 credits)

Language of Shakespeare and His Time enables you to explore distinctive Early Modern English linguistic features (including morphology, syntax and pronunciation) of Shakespeare’s work in great detail, and to compare them with corresponding features in present-day Standard British English. You will identify linguistic distinctions in Shakespeare’s language which are no longer active today, analyse the differences between Early Modern English and contemporary English in terms of vocabulary, grammatical structure and usage, and distinguish between the language of Shakespeare’s time and Shakespeare’s own creative use of the language.

LNG2133 Analysing Discourse (20 credits)

Analysing Discourse takes a linguistic approach to the examination of discourse, both written and spoken. You will explore how discourse is structured and consider how meaning in discourse is created and negotiated between addressors and addressees. Furthermore, the module presents a linguistic approach to the study of the communication, creation, maintenance and contestation of ideologies via discourse.

LNG2134 Early English (600-1500) (20 credits)

Early English (600-1500) provides an opportunity to gain greater familiarity with linguistic features of Old and Middle English and to undertake in-depth analysis of the language of writers such as Chaucer and Gower and the writers of Beowulf, Piers Plowman and other major texts of the period. The module will enable you to understand the complexities of describing the English of an age before the rise of standard forms of the language were widely adopted. Your awareness of major literary texts written in English will also be increased.

LNG2135 Phonetics and Phonology (20 credits)

Phonetics and Phonology provides you with the opportunity to acquire practical and theoretical knowledge and skills in the description and classification of speech sounds. Using English as its focus, the module begins with the study of articulatory phonetics, focusing on segmental and suprasegmental features of accent. You will then use this knowledge as a foundation to begin the study of basic phonology. Concepts, such as phonemes, allophones and the syllable are discussed in some detail.

LNG2136 Modern English Structure and Usage (20 credits)

Modern English Structure and Usage teaches aspects of modern English grammar (morphology and syntax) or structure, and examines their interaction with variational aspects of modern English usage. You will acquire an extensive basis of expertise in the key area of grammatical description, becoming familiar with an appropriate level of grammatical terminology and developing important practical skills in detailed grammatical analysis.

LNG2137 Regional Varieties of English (20 credits)

Regional Varieties of English provides a systematic and comprehensive review of regional varieties of English in the British Isles and overseas, looking at their distinctive features of grammar, phonetics and lexis. The module shows how varieties have developed over time from the earliest period of English, how they have diverged, and how some varieties have recently come to influence or dominate others. Newly emerging varieties of the language will also be examined.

LNG2139 Child Language Development (20 credits)

Child Language Development offers an overview of the processes involved in first language development. The module considers how children develop language in terms of perception and comprehension, phonetics and phonology, lexis and grammar. You will also be introduced to, and examine, theoretical accounts of how we acquire our first language. This will include consideration of themes around nativism and evidence-based approaches.

If you studied a Language module in Year 1, you may wish to study a further Language module in Year 2. This would form an integral part of your degree in place of one of the optional modules above.

Year 3

LNG3150 Employability (20 credits)

Employability encourages you to analyse a work-related problem appropriate to the programme of study and/or identify an organisation and negotiate a work placement, and to write an evaluative reflective report on this work-related project. The module will include a combination of lectures (including guest lectures), tutorials, and independent work on a project related to graduate employment.

WRI3021 Poetry and Innovative Form (20 credits)

Poetry and Innovative Form enables you to practice advanced techniques and develop innovative strategies for writing poetry, while reading a range of contemporary works (including emergent forms) and reflecting upon the reading and writing. You will feed the resultant poetics of this writing back into a developed poetic practice. Emphasis will be placed upon autonomous and continuous writing practice and experimentation and the development of a poetics of writing to accompany and fortify this, as well as reading poetry as a fellow-practitioner and developing this work and awareness through workshop participation.

WRI3022 Advanced Fiction (20 credits)

Advanced Fiction provides you with the opportunity to write fiction at an advanced level, with a particular focus on the novel and the short story sequence. Using increasingly complex themes and techniques, you will establish a growing sense of autonomy as a writer, shaped by the reading of fiction and also your own continuous writing practice. You are also encouraged to experiment with form and genre and to consider potential publishing outlets for your work.

You will select one of the following modules:

LNG3133 Psycholinguistics (20 credits)

Psycholinguistics explores the ways that we understand and produce language, from a cognitive perspective. With a primary focus on the English language, the module questions whether there is evidence for a developmental trajectory of child language comprehension and production and considers whether we can distinguish between linguistic competence and performance in either oral or written communication. You will also discover a variety of psycholinguistic methodologies, analyse how we teach and evaluate particular linguistic skills and abilities, and examine whether we can identify individuals early in life who are at risk of a slower rate of language development and give them appropriate support.

LNG3140 Language and Gender (20 credits)

Language and Gender reflects on how, since the 1970s, scholars have tried to answer questions of how men and women are talked about and how their language use reflects differences between them. Whilst these feminist approaches sparked considerable research and ultimately created a new field of enquiry, developments over the past forty years have been influenced by the argument that men and women are not inherently different. Instead, gender is considered to be a social construction created and maintained partially through language. This module explores the ways in which language both reflects and perpetuates the very notion of gender difference, engaging critically with gender stereotypes.

LNG3143 An Introduction to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) (20 credits)

An Introduction to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) examines the principles and practice of good English language teaching. Issues dealt with during the module include the history of language teaching and learning, individual learner differences, grammatical terminology, materials development and planning English for Speakers of Other Languages’ programmes and lessons.

You will select a further 40 credits from the following modules:

LNG3141 Communicating Sexuality (20 credits)

Communicating Sexuality focuses on the role of language in communicating and constructing sexual identities. The module also examines the function of language in controlling sexuality and sexualities, and in marginalising and criminalising certain sexual identities while normalising others. The module makes use of a range of linguistic approaches, including  sociolinguistic, historical, ethnographic, discourse analytical, and sociocultural methods, in order to enable you to analyse how language functions in these regards. In addition, it enables you you to articulate and critique key concepts such as culture, ideology, stereotype, identity and sexuality. The aim is to explore and debunk prejudicial attitudes to minority sexualities and to enrich your understanding and valuing of diverse sexual identities. Although the primary linguistic focus of the module is English, the module also takes a trans-global perspective on sexuality.

LNG3142 Bilingualism (20 credits)

Bilingualism investigates bilingualism as a socially and culturally contextualised phenomenon. The module begins by identifying processes involved in the acquisition of more than one language in different contexts, such as within the family and community and within various formal educational settings. At the level of individual language use, you will examine conversational code-switching in the light of current research findings. At the level of communities and societies, you will explore different models for the functional distribution of languages and attempts for language planning. The focus of the module is on bilingualism as a worldwide phenomenon but attention is given to language diversity and the use of languages other than English in the UK.

LNG3144 Beyond English (20 credits)

Beyond English takes a typological approach to language. The module enables you to understand the major features of the structure of English at a more universal level, in terms of the ways in which the features of English phonetics, phonology, morphosyntax, semantics and its writing system compare with the same features in other numerically significant or otherwise relevant languages.

LNG3145 Language and Identity (20 credits)

Language and Identity explores a variety of past and present approaches to the study of language and identity. You will examine how different identities are constructed and look at their intrinsic relationship to language and other socio-cultural phenomena. Placing a strong emphasis on the symbolic social value of language differentiation, the aim of the module is to make you aware of the importance of promoting more tolerant attitudes to language variation in society and reducing linguistic prejudices, a perspective that will be essential for those intending to develop a career in educational contexts.

LNG3147 Corpus Linguistics (20 credits)

Corpus Linguistics introduces the theoretical and practical issues of using language corpora in linguistic research, as well as language teaching and learning, and explores how the corpus-based approach and other methodologies can be combined in language studies.

LNG3148 Language Dissertation (40 credits)

Language Dissertation involves the completion of an 8,000-9000 word independent (but supervised) study of an area of language of interest to you. You will learn how to research and write about a topic agreed with your supervisor, and produce a well organised and well-structured piece of research. Potential topics which could be explored in a dissertation include, for example, phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, sociolinguistics, historical linguistics, child language acquisition, spoken discourse analysis, psycholinguistics, language in relation to gender and sexuality, language pathology, language and pedagogy, dialectology, language contact, creolisation, place-name studies, bilingualism, or contrastive grammar.

LNG3149 English in Contact (20 credits)

English in Contact deals with issues in which contact-induced change interacts with aspects of the English language. Language contact is one of the most widely discussed topics in modern linguistics and much of the discussion centres on work that has been done using data from English. This module examines both the effects of language contact and of contact-induced language change upon English over the past millennium or more, and the effect that English has had on other languages, those spoken in predominantly ‘anglophone’ (English language-dominant) areas and those used in non-anglophone areas (for instance, the strong influence of modern English lexicon on popular French and Japanese). Ancient and modern contact effects will be examined and a wide range of language material will be used.

LNG3152 Forensic Linguistics (20 credits)

Forensic Linguistics recognises that the law is overwhelmingly a linguistic institution. Laws are coded in language and the concepts that are used to construct law are accessible only through language.  Legal processes, such as court cases, police investigations, and the management of prisoners take place almost exclusively though language. Forensic linguistics concerns the application of linguistics to describe and analyse language and discourse in the legal process.  This module takes a broad view of the subject in order to examine a wide interface between language and the law.

If you studied Language modules in Years 1 and 2, you may wish to study a further Language module in Year 3. This would form an integral part of your degree in place of one of the optional modules above.

Optional modules provide an element of choice within the programme curriculum. The availability of optional modules may vary from year to year and will be subject to minimum student numbers being achieved. This means that the availability of specific optional modules cannot be guaranteed. Optional module selection may also be affected by timetabling requirements.

Disclaimer

Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of our published course information, however our programmes are subject to ongoing review and development. Changing circumstances may necessitate alteration to, or the cancellation of, courses.

Changes may be necessary to comply with the requirements of accrediting bodies, revisions to subject benchmarks statements, to keep courses updated and contemporary, or as a result of student feedback. We reserve the right to make variations if we consider such action to be necessary or in the best interests of students.

Entry Criteria

Entry Requirements

120 UCAS Tariff points on the new UCAS Tariff, preferably to include A Level English or equivalent.

Example Offers

Some typical examples of how you can achieve 120 UCAS Tariff points are detailed below.

  • A Levels – BBB;
  • BTEC Extended Diploma (or combination of BTEC QCF qualifications)– Distinction, Distinction, Merit (DDM);
  • Access to Higher Education Diploma – successful completion of Diploma to include 45 credits at Level 3, of which 30 credits must be graded Distinction and 15 credits graded Merit.

Please note, the above examples may differ from actual offers made. A combination of A Level and BTEC awards may also be accepted.

As long as you have a minimum of two A Levels (or equivalent), there is no maximum number of qualifications that we will accept UCAS points from. This includes additional qualifications such as the Welsh Baccalaureate and Certificate of Personal Effectiveness (CoPE), AS Levels that haven’t been continued to A Level, and General Studies AS or A Level awards.

For further information on how you can meet the entry requirements, including details of alternative qualifications, please visit www.edgehill.ac.uk/offers.

EU students can get country-specific information about the University’s entry requirements and equivalent national qualifications at www.edgehill.ac.uk/eu.

International students should visit www.edgehill.ac.uk/international for information on the entry criteria for overseas applicants.

Recognition of Prior Learning

Edge Hill University recognises learning gained elsewhere, whether through academic credit and qualifications acquired from other relevant courses of study or through recognition of an individual’s professional and employment experience (also referred to as ‘experiential learning’).

Previous learning that is recognised in this way may be used towards meeting the entry requirements for a programme and/or for exemption from part of a programme. It is your responsibility to make a claim for recognition of prior learning. For guidance, please consult the University’s Recognition of Prior Learning Policy and contact the faculty in which you are interested in studying.

Career Prospects

What are my career prospects?

Typical careers for English Language graduates include teaching (further training required), speech therapy, library work, media, journalism, arts administration, publishing, public and voluntary sectors. Alternatively, you may wish to progress to further study or research in English Language.

Typical careers for Creative Writing graduates include working in media, education, advertising, publishing, information technology, radio or television, business, and the theatre. Alternatively, you may wish to progress to further study or research in Creative Writing.

How can I enhance my employability?

It is useful to consider, even before you apply, how you will spend your time while studying and make the most of your university experience.

Optional, additional activities are available on this degree which can help to prepare you for a stimulating and rewarding career. These include:

  • Sandwich Year – you may have the opportunity to apply to complete a sandwich year placement as part of your programme (usually the third year of a four year degree) and gain highly relevant work experience;
  • Study Abroad – you may have the opportunity to apply to spend an additional year (usually the third year of a four year degree) studying or working abroad;
  • Language Learning – you may be able to select language modules in French, Spanish or Mandarin, delivered at the Edge Hill Language Centre, as an integral part of your degree (for which you will gain academic credits). Alternatively, it may be possible to select the language modules as additional study.

Please note, the availability of these additional activities cannot be guaranteed for all students. Depending on availability and the number of students wanting to participate, there may be a competitive application process for sandwich year placements or study abroad opportunities or you may be required to secure a relevant placement yourself.

Finance

Tuition Fees

If you are a prospective UK or EU student who will be joining this undergraduate degree in academic year 2017/18, we expect tuition fees to increase to £9,250 per annum but this is currently subject to Government approval. You are advised to check this page regularly and once the position has been confirmed we will update this information. Tuition fees for international students enrolling on the programme in academic year 2017/18 are £11,575 per annum.

Financial Support

Subject to eligibility, UK and EU students can apply for a Tuition Fee Loan from the Government to cover the full cost of tuition fees. UK students may also be eligible to apply for additional funding to help with living costs.

For comprehensive information about the financial support available to eligible UK and EU students joining this programme in academic year 2017/18, together with details of how to apply for funding, please view our Money Matters 2017/18 guide at www.edgehill.ac.uk/undergradfinance2017.

Financial support information for international students can be found at www.edgehill.ac.uk/international/fees.

Scholarships

Edge Hill University offers a range of scholarships with a competitive application process for prospective full-time undergraduate students. These scholarships aren’t linked to academic success and celebrate determination, talent and achievement beyond your coursework, for instance in creativity, enterprise, ICT, performance, sport or volunteering.

Additional scholarships, which you may qualify to receive, reward outstanding grades and are available to eligible UK and EU students.

To find out more about scholarships, to assess your eligibility, and to meet some of our dedicated scholarship winners, visit www.edgehill.ac.uk/scholarships.

Apply

How to Apply

Apply online through UCAS at www.ucas.com.

Visit www.edgehill.ac.uk/applyucas to find out more about the application process.

Should you accept an offer of a place to study with us and formally enrol as a student, you will be subject to the provisions of the regulations, rules, codes, conditions and policies which apply to our students. These are available atwww.edgehill.ac.uk/studentterms.

Visit Us

If you are considering applying to study at Edge Hill University, the best way to gain an insight into student life is to discover our stunning campus for yourself by attending an open day. You can view dates and book your place at www.edgehill.ac.uk/bookanopenday.

Alternatively, if you are unable to attend an open day, you can find out more about all of our events for prospective undergraduate students, including monthly campus tours, at www.edgehill.ac.uk/undergradevents.

Request a Prospectus

If you would like to explore our full range of degrees before you apply, you can order an undergraduate prospectus at www.edgehill.ac.uk/undergradprospectus.

Get in Touch

If you have any questions about this programme or what it’s like to study at Edge Hill University, please contact:

International students should visit www.edgehill.ac.uk/international or email international@edgehill.ac.uk with any queries about overseas study.

  • Book an Open Day
  • Request a Prospectus
  • Enquire Online
  • Live Chat
Expand/Collapse all

Course Changes

This page outlines any material changes to course content, programme structure, assessment methods, entry criteria, and modes of study or delivery, implemented since 1st September 2015.

9th June 2016 - New Modules Added

A Language module is now available as a Year 2 option, providing a Language module was studied in Year 1.

A Language module is also available as a Year 3 option, providing Language modules were studied in Years 1 and 2.

25th February 2016 - Change of Modules

Although the broad themes of the programme remain largely the same, the vast majority of modules have been replaced by new/updated versions, with a small number of additional modules added. This new programme structure is being implemented from September 2016 entry.

There is also now the option of selecting a Language module in French, Spanish or Mandarin as an integral part of this degree in Year 1. A Language module is also available as a Year 2 option, providing a Language module was studied in Year 1.