Clare Strode

Clare Strode portrait image

Clare Strode Reader in Vector Biology

Clare joined EHU in January 2013 as a Senior Lecturer in Biology. She gained her PhD at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM) studying the activity of insect antimicrobial peptides against the parasites Brugia malayi and Leishmania sp. Clare subsequently spent 10 years at LSTM as a post-doctoral researcher. During this time she developed bespoke microarrays or ‘detox chips’  to dissect the genetic mechanisms involved in conferring insecticide resistance in the major malaria mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae and the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. The detox chips proved to be highly instrumental in evolving the understanding of resistance.

Resulting from this work she has been involved in numerous international collaborations monitoring insecticide resistance in mosquito populations worldwide and determining the factors underpinning this increasing global problem. Clare has also been involved in assessing whether vector control measures, such as insecticide treated bed nets, remain effective against insecticide resistant mosquitoes.

Since joining EHU Clare has instigated an international collaboration with the Centre for Disease Control US and the University. Based on her extensive knowledge of insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors she is currently applying  Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques to resistant populations of  triatomine bugs which are the vectors of South American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease).

Recently Clare has also  started working with Merseyside Health Port Authority (MHPA) in carrying out surveillance at the Port of Liverpool (PoL) for the presence of invasive mosquito species (IMS) that pose a potential health risk to the UK. In connection with this work she is also developing a low cost and effective screening method for used tyres for the presence of IMS eggs.

Port Invasive Mosquito Surveillance (PIMS)

PIMS was recently formed In November 2015 alongside Thom Dallimore, Public Health England and MHPAs from participating ports across the UK. From 2016 onwards PIMS will be involved in the design and carrying out of surveillance for IMS participating  sea and airports. A dedicated website will follow shortly.

Research Interests

  • Insecticide resistance in malaria and dengue mosquito vectors
  • Genetic mechanisms underpinning resistance in triatomine bugs from South America
  • The effectiveness of vector control tools in the face of resistance
  • The ecology and taxonomy of British native and invasive mosquito species
  • The effectiveness of monitoring strategies for invasive mosquito species that pose a health risk in the UK


  • Cell form and function (module leader)
  • Molecular genetics (module leader)
  • Biology of disease (module leader)
  • Laboratory master class (module leader)
  • Epidemiology (module leader)
  • Research methods in biology (module leader)
  • Current issues in biology
  • Dissertation
  • Programme leader: Human Biology BSc


  • BSc (Joint Hons.) Marine Biology & Zoology (University of Wales, Bangor)
  • MSc. Animal Parasitology (University of Wales, Bangor)
  • PhD Immune peptides of mosquitoes (University of Liverpool)

Professional courses

Introduction to the Identification of Mosquitoes (Culicidae) (course leader, next available dates; 6th-8th July 2016)

Web links


Google Scholar

Current PhD students

  • Thom Dallimore:  A taxonomic and genetic investigation of British and invasive mosquitoes with a view to improving UK vector surveillance
  • Jasmine Morgan: The role of cuticular thickness in conferring insecticide resistance in the Dengue and Zika vector mosquito Aedes aegypti

Past PhD students

  • Dr Claudia Witzig: Investigating the genetic basis of pyrethroid resistance in two members of the Anopheles gambiae complex (LSTM)
  • Carl Barker: The population genetics of Tilia cordata at a landscape level


Clare Strode
Biosciences building
Department of Biology
Edge Hill University
Ormskirk, Lancashire
L39 4QP
01695 657 373


Dusfour, I., Zorrilla, P., Guidez, A., Issaly, J., Girod, R., Guillaumot, L. and Strode, C. (2015). Deltamethrin Resistance Mechanisms in Aedes aegypti Populations from Three French Overseas Territories Worldwide. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 9(11), e0004226.

Saavedra-Rodriguez K, Strode C, Flores AE, Garcia-Luna S, Reyes-Solis G, Ranson H and Hemingway J. (2014). Differential transcription profiles in Aedes aegypti detoxification genes after temphos selection. Insect Mol Biol. Apr; 23(2):199-215. doi:10.1111/imb.12073

Thomsen EK, Strode C, Hemmings K, Hughes AJ, Chanda E, et al. (2014) Underpinning Sustainable Vector Control through Informed Insecticide Resistance Management. PLoS ONE 9(6): e99822. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0099822

Strode C, Donegan S, Garner P, Enayati AA, Hemingway J (2014). The Impact of Pyrethroid Resistance on the Efficacy of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets against African Anopheline Mosquitoes: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLoS Med. Mar 18;11(3):e1001619.

Witzig C., Wondji C.S., Strode C., Djouaka R., and Ranson, H. (2013). Identifying permethrin resistance loci in Malaria vectors by genetic mapping. Parasitology, vol 28, pp.1-10.

Riaz MA, Chandor-Proust A, Dauphin-Villemant C, Poupardin R, Jones CM, Strode C, Régent- Kloeckner M, David JP, Reynaud S. (2013). Molecular mechanisms associated with increased tolerance to the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Aquat Toxicol., vol. 12, pp. 326-37

Strode, C., Melo-Santos, M. A. V., Magalhaes, T., Araujo, A. P. & Ayres, C. F. J. (2012) ‘Expression profile of metabolic genes during resistance reversal in a temephos selected strain of the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti’, PLoS ONE , vol 7, e39439.

Saavedra-Rodriguez, K., Suarez, A.F., Salas, I.F., Strode, C., Ranson, H., Hemingway, J. & BlackIV, W.C. (2011) ‘Transcription of detoxification genes after permethrin selection in the mosquito Aedes aegypti’, Insect Mol Biol, vol 21, no.1, pp61-77. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2583.2011.01113.x

Christian, R.N., Strode, C., Ranson, H., Coetzer, N., Coetzee, M. and Koekemoer, L.L.(2011) Microarray analysis of a pyrethroid resistant African malaria vector, Anopheles funestus, from southern Africa. Pesticide Biochem & Physiol, vol 99,no.2 pp. 140–147

Bingham, G., Strode, C., Tran, L., Khoa, P.T. & Jamet, H.P. (2011) ‘Can piperonyl butoxide enhance the efficacy of pyrethroids against pyrethroid-resistant Aedes aegypti?’, Trop Med Int Health, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 492-500.

Awolola, T.S., Oduola, O.A., Strode, C., Koekemoer, L.L., Brooke, B. & Ranson, H. (2009)Evidence of multiple pyrethroid resistance mechanisms in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto from Nigeria’, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, vol. 103, no. 11, pp. 1139-1145.

Marcombe, S., Poupardin, R., Darriet, F., Reynaud, S., Bonnet, J., Strode, C., Brengues, C., Yebakima, A., Ranson, H., Corbel, V. & David, J.P. (2009) ‘Exploring the molecular basis of insecticide resistance in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti: a case study in Martinique Island (French West Indies)’, BMC Genomics, vol. 10, p. 494.

Riaz, M.A., Poupardin, R., Reynaud, S., Strode, C., Ranson, H. & David, J.P. (2009) ‘Impact of glyphosate and benzo[a]pyrene on the tolerance of mosquito larvae to chemical insecticides. Role of detoxification genes in response to xenobiotics’, Aquat Toxicol, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 61-69.

Poupardin, R., Reynaud, S., Strode, C., Ranson, H., Vontas, J. & David, J.P. (2008) ‘Cross induction of detoxification genes by environmental xenobiotics and insecticides in the mosquito Aedes aegypti: impact on larval tolerance to chemical insecticides’, Insect Biochem Mol Biol, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 540-551.

Djouaka, R.F., Bakare, A.A., Coulibaly, O.N., Akogbeto, M.C., Ranson, H., Hemingway, J. & Strode, C. (2008) ‘Expression of the cytochrome P450s, CYP6P3 and CYP6M2 are significantly elevated in multiple pyrethroid resistant populations of Anopheles gambiae s.s. from Southern Benin and Nigeria’, BMC Genomics, vol. 9, p. 538.

Saavedra-Rodriguez, K., Strode, C., Flores Suarez, A., Fernandez Salas, I., Ranson, H., Hemingway, J. & Black, W.C.t. (2008) ‘Quantitative trait loci mapping of genome regions controlling permethrin resistance in the mosquito Aedes aegypti’, Genetics, vol. 180, no. 2, pp. 1137-1152.

Strode, C., Wondji, C.S., David, J.P., Hawkes, N.J., Lumjuan, N., Nelson, D.R., Drane, D.R., Karunaratne, S.H., Hemingway, J., Black, W.C.t. & Ranson, H. (2008) ‘Genomic analysis of detoxification genes in the mosquito Aedes aegypti’, Insect Biochem Mol Biol, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 113-123.

Strode, C., Steen, K., Ortelli, F. & Ranson, H. (2006) ‘Differential expression of the detoxification genes in the different life stages of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae’, Insect Mol Biol, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 523-530.

David, J.P., Strode, C., Vontas, J., Nikou, D., Vaughan, A., Pignatelli, P.M., Louis, C., Hemingway, J. & Ranson, H. (2005) ‘The Anopheles gambiae detoxification chip: a highly specific microarray to study metabolic-based insecticide resistance in malaria vectors’, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol. 102, no. 11, pp. 4080-4084.

Topalis, P., Koutsos, A., Dialynas, E., Kiamos, C., Hope, L.K., Strode, C., Hemingway, J. & Louis, C. (2005) ‘AnoBase: a genetic and biological database of anophelines’, Insect Mol Biol, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 591-597.

Conference papers

Strode C, Donegan S, Garner P, Enayati AA, Hemingway J (2012) The impact of insecticide resistance on the efficacy of Insecticide treated nets (ITNs) against African Anopheline mosquitoes 61st American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH), Atlanta, USA..

Strode, C, Ranson, H and Hemingway, J. (2009) Insecticide resistance in malaria vectors. First Lady of Mozambique Office, Resistance symposium. Maputo, Mozambique.

Strode, C, Ranson, H and Hemingway, J.  (2008) The 2nd International forum for sustainable management of disease vectors. Beijing, China.

Strode, C.,Djouaka, F.R., Bakare, A.A., Akogbeto, M.C. and Hemingway, J. (2007) Evidence of metabolic resistance in pyrethroid resistant populations of Anopheles gambiae from Benin, West Africa.  56Th ASTMH, Philadelphia, USA.

Strode, C, Karunarate, PS, Black, WC, Ranson, R. (2006).  The differential gene expression of detoxification enzymes implicated in insecticide resistance of Aedes aegypti using a small scale microarray. 55th ASTMH, Atlanta, USA.

Strode, C,  Hemingway, J, and Ranson, R.(2005)  The differential gene expression of detoxification enzymes in adult and immature stages of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. 54th ASTMH, Washington, USA.

Strode, C, David, JP, Hemingway, J, and Ranson, R. (2005) The British Society of Parasitology, University of Nottingham, UK.

Strode, C, David, JP, Hemingway, J, and Ranson, R.(2004) The Anopheles gambiae detoxification chip: a highly specific microarray to study metabolic-based insecticide resistance in malaria vectors. XII International Congress of Entomology, Brisbane, Australia.

Strode, C. and Townson, H. (2000) The antiparasitic activity of antimicrobial peptides from insects. Royal Entomology Society, Liverpool, UK.